J. Podleśny, S. Pietruszewski, A. Podleśna. The effect of pre-sowing magnetic field treatment on the development and yielding of white lupine
A. Blinstrubienė, A. Sliesaravičius, N. Burbulis. Effect of genotype and medium composition on linseed (Linum Usitatissimum L. ) morphogenesis in tissue culture
A. Deryabin, I. Dubinina, E. Burakhanova, N. Astakhova, E. Sabelnikova, M. Sinkevich, T. Trunova. Studying of cold tolerance of potato plants transformed with yeast invertase gene
N. Anisimovienė, L. Novickienė, J. Jankauskienė. Cold acclimation of winter rape: changes in protein composition under the effect of auxin analogue TA-14
N.V. Kipaykina, V.N. Popov, I.V. Orlova, N.V. Merkulova, V.D. Tsydendambaev, D.A. Los, T.I. Trunova. Cold tolerance and fatty acid composition in lipid of tobacco plants transformed by the gene Δ 9-acyl-lipid desaturase from Synechococcus Vulcanus
R. Kuprienė, L. Žilėnaitė, N. Burbulis. The influence of heat stress pretreatment and different types of media on morphogenesis in spring rapeseed anther culture
F. Hnilička, H. Hniličková, J. Česká. The influence of abiotic stresses upon photosynthesis and growth of wheat
N.A. Belyavskaya, O.I. Zhuk, I.N. Kurilenko, T.A. Palladina. Morphogenesis of maize primary roots in relation to salinity and methyure effect
V. Titok, S. Yurenkova, L. Khotyleva. Energy metabolism in fibre flax ontogenesis at heterosis
J. Darginavičienė, G. Maksimov, J. Žemėnas. Influence of cycloheximide treatment (in vivo) on IAA-dependent reactions in wheat coleoptile cell nuclei
N. Budagovskaya, V. Guliaev. Antioxidant - induced changes in leaf growth rate of plants
S.V. Klimov. Specific features of autumnal CO2-exchange in the overwintering plants
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 2, 86, 3-12
THE EFFECT OF PRE-SOWING MAGNETIC FIELD TREATMENT ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND YIELDING OF WHITE LUPINE
Janusz PODLEŚNY1, Stanisław PIETRUSZEWSKI2, Anna PODLEŚNA3
1Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation
Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland,
Akademicka 13, 20 - 950 Lublin, Poland
3Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation
Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
The tests were carried out at the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation in Pulawy during 2000-2001. The first order factor were two varieties of white lupine: Butan a traditional form and Katon a self-determinating form, while the second factor were 3 exposure doses of magnetic induction intensity: D0 - no bio-stimulation (control), D1 10750 Jm3s (B = 30 mT, t = 15 s) and D2 85987 Jm3s (B = 85 mT, t = 15 s). Magnetic bio-stimulation of seeds was performed in the Physics Department at Agricultural University in Lublin using a specially constructed device for pre-sowing magnetic treatment of seeds which is equipped with electromagnet with fluent regulation of magnetic induction. The research confirmed a positive effect of magnetic bio-stimulation on germination and emergence of both white lupine cultivars. In the treatment exposed to magnetic bio-stimulation the plants emerged 2-3 days earlier and the emergence was more regular in comparison to the control. Pre-sowing magnetic treatment of white lupine seeds exerted a significant influence on seed yield increase. A higher yielding capacity of both forms of white lupine determined by seed treatment with a magnetic field was the result of a higher number of pods per plant and lower plant losses per unit area during the growing season. However, the efficacy of the treatment depended on the weather conditions.
Key words: white lupine, seed biostimulation, magnetic field, emergence dynamics, plant development, yielding.
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 2, 86, 13-21
EFFECT OF GENOTYPE AND MEDIUM COMPOSITION ON LINSEED (LINUM USITATISSIMUM L. ) MORPHOGENESIS IN TISSUE CULTURE
Aušra BLINSTRUBIENĖ, Algirdas SLIESARAVIČIUS, Natalija BURBULIS
Lithuanian University of Agriculture
Studentų 11, 53067 Akademija, LT-53067, Kaunas district
During 2002-2003 factors which influence morphogenetic capabilities of linseed Lirina, Barbara and Szaphir in tissue culture were investigated at the Genetic-Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Crop Science and Animal Husbandry, Lithuanian University of Agriculture. The explants of the three genotypes were stem segments cultivated in nutrient media differing in their macro and micro salts contents, as well as in the plant growth regulator compositions. The results show that callus, root formation and shoot regeneration is possible in all nutrient media, however these processes largely depend on the genotype. The best morphogenetic capabilities were demonstrated by genotype Szaphir. The largest number of shoots was produced by all the genotypes in MSB5 nutrient medium supplemented with cytokinin 2iP (2.0 mg 1-1). The most intensive rooting of shoots was observed in MS nutrient media free of growth regulators, when the concentration of macro and micro salts was reduced by 50 %.
Key words: genotype, growth regulators, linseed, media effects, tissue culture, morphogenesis.
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 2, 86, 22-29
STUDYING OF COLD TOLERANCE OF POTATO PLANTS TRANSFORMED WITH YEAST INVERTASE GENE
Alexander DERYABIN, Irina DUBININA, Elena BURAKHANOVA,
Nina ASTAKHOVA, Elena SABELNIKOVA, Maxim SINKEVICH,
Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Botanicheskaya ul. 35, Moscow 127276 Russia
Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Désirée) transformed with yeast invertase gene under the control of tuber-specific B33 class 1 patatin promoter and proteinase inhibitor II leader peptide sequence providing for the apoplastic enzyme localization (abbreviated below as B33-inv plants) and nontransformed plants were used in the experiment. Lipid peroxidation intensity was studied (by malonic dialdehyde contents) immediately after 1, 3, 6 h exposure at -2oC and 12 h after 24 hours of exposure. A significant decrease of malonic dialdehyde contents in potato plant leaves was seen at the beginning of chilling (1 hour), and it was greater in B33-inv plants. Further exposure (3 and 6 hours) resulted in accumulation of malonic dialdehyde in leaves of the studied potato plant genotypes. 12 hours after return of the plants to normal temperature we saw recovery of the lipid peroxidation level to initial one in B33-inv plants and significant increase of it in nontransformed plants. It was shown that high cold tolerance of B33-inv plants elucidated by us correlates with higher activities of their invertases and greater level of endogen sugars, in both normal and low temperature conditions, in comparison with nontransformed plants.
Key words: cold tolerance, invertase, lipid peroxidation, potato, sugars, transgenic plants.-
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 2, 86, 30-38
COLD ACCLIMATION OF WINTER RAPE: CHANGES IN PROTEIN COMPOSITION UNDER THE EFFECT OF AUXIN ANALOGUE TA-14
Nijolė ANISIMOVIENĖ, Leonida NOVICKIENĖ, Jurga JANKAUSKIENĖ
Institute of Botany
Žaliųjų ežerų 49, 08604 Vilnius, Lithuania
The objective of the present study is to gain a better insight into the basic mechanism of cold acclimation and to ascertain the possibilities to induce frost resistance of winter rape, employing auxin physiological analogue compound TA-14.
Biochemical analyses revealed the effect of compound on the changes in protein composition of both, easily soluble (mainly cytoplasmic) and hard-to-solve (structural compartments of the cell) protein fractions in the investigated organs developing inflorescence and root collum tissues of winter rape. The formation of novel proteins not characteristic of control plants as well as disappearance of others was observed. In rape var. Accord plants under the effect of TA-14 the formation and accumulation of 60 kDa protein (possibly dehydrin, characterized as a marker of cold acclimation) was induced. Compound TA-14 has also effect on >94, 40, 35, 23 kDa polypeptides formation and 42, 22 kDa disappearance in developing inflorescence, while in root collum >94, 41, 34, 22 kDa appeared and 57, 42 kDa disappeared. The effect of compound TA-14 on protein fund transformation in rape var. Casino was confirmed, but some differences in protein metabolism have been revealed. The proposition has been made that the protein fund composition in the cell is one of most important biochemical factors, determining cold acclimation and frost resistance of plants.
Key words: auxin physiological analogue TA-14, cold acclimation, frost resistance, protein composition, rape.
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 2, 86, 39-43
COLD TOLERANCE AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN LIPID OF TOBACCO PLANTS TRANSFORMED BY THE GENE Δ 9-ACYL-LIPID DESATURASE FROM SYNECHOCOCCUS VULCANUS
Natalia V. KIPAYKINA, Valeriy N. POPOV, Irina V. ORLOVA,
Natalia V. MERKULOVA, Vladimir D. TSYDENDAMBAEV,
Dmitriy A. LOS, Tamara I. TRUNOVA
Institute of plant physiology Russian Academy of Science
Street Botanical 35, 127276 Moscow
The desC gene for the acyl-lipid A9-desaturase from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus vulcanus was introduced into Nicotiana tabacum under control of the 35S promoter. Expression of the desaturase was confirmed by Western blotting. Lipid analysis revealed that lipid content and the extent of fatty acid unsaturation significantly increased in leaves of transgenic plants. Chilling tolerance of those plants also increased, as estimated by the electrolyte leakage from the tissues damaged by cold treatments. Seeds of plants that expressed the desC gene imbibed at low temperatures demonstrated higher chilling tolerance than those of the control plants. The results demonstrate that the cyanobacterial thermophilic acyl-lipid desaturase was efficiently expressed in tobacco at ambient temperatures, and its expression resulted in the enhanced chilling tolerance of the transgenic plants.
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 2, 86, 44-53
THE INFLUENCE OF HEAT STRESS PRETREATMENT AND DIFFERENT TYPES OF MEDIA ON MORPHOGENESIS IN SPRING RAPESEED ANTHER CULTURE
Ramunė KUPRIENĖ, Liuda ŽILĖNAITĖ, Natalija BURBULIS
Lithuanian University of Agriculture
Studentų 11, LT-53067 Akademija, Kaunas
The response of anthers to in vitro culture and effect of media, genotype and temperature pretreatment of anthers have been studied in Trend and Landmark cultivars of sping rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) at the Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Genetic-Biotechnology Laboratory. It was concluded that the processes of embryogenesis and callusgenesis, which proceeded in the culture of isolated anthers depended on the plant genotype, nutrient medium composition and the duration of thermal shock. The influence of thermal shock on the rapeseed morphogenesis process in the culture of isolated anthers depends on the interrelation between genotype and nutrient medium. A22 medium proved to be most suitable for Trend genotype callus induction when thermal shock was applied for 24 hours; R2 medium was most suitable for Landmark genotype when the anthers were kept at +35oC temperature for 72 hours. The analysed combinations of growth regulators (NAR+2.4D and NAR+BAP) in most cases caused undesirable callus rhizogenesis in the induction medium. Morphologically mature embryos of Trend genotype were obtained by cultivating anthers in NLN medium after the application of 72 hours thermal shock.
Key words: Brassica napus L., anther culture, embryogenesis, callusgenesis, nutrient media, thermal shock.
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 2, 86, 54-66
THE INFLUENCE OF ABIOTIC STRESSES UPON PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND GROWTH OF WHEAT
František HNILIČKA, Helena HNILIČKOVÁ, Jana ČESKÁ
Czech University of Agriculture in Prague, Faculty of Agronomy,
Department of Botany and Plant Physiology
Kamýcká street 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol, Czech Republic
The current climatic changes bring distinct fluctuations of temperature and relatively uneven, irregular and random distribution of precipitation during the plant growing season. Regarding these facts it is even possible to predict longer drought periods. The study of plant adaptation to water deficit is becoming an increasingly relevant issue, particularly when water deficit occurs regularly during the main growing period in the majority of field crops under local climatic conditions. The water deficit causes a decline in the nutrient uptake and a limitation of basic physiological processes of plants. Not only water deficit but also lower soil acidity results in a reduction of plant productivity. Acid soils are one of the serious problems of agricultural production that relates to Central Europe territory and other continents, too. The decline in pH values is caused by acid rains, utilisation of physiologically acid fertilisers and by the use of lower rates of calciferous fertiliser. The influence of abiotic stresses on winter wheat varieties is proved by a lower weight of plants and, generally, by a yield decrease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of abiotic stresses (drought, low pH of soil, combination of drought and low pH) on the rate of photosynthesis and accumulation of dry matter in vegetative and generative plant organs in three winter wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L.). The growth development was observed, too. Estica, Ebi and Mironovska 808 wheat varieties were used for the experiment under the greenhouse controlled conditions. The trial was carried out in four variants (as plants were cultivated): control, drought, low pH and combination of drought and soil pH. The photosynthesis and accumulation of dry matter are negatively affected by abiotic stresses. The variety Ebi had the lowest photosynthesis (9.13 mmol CO2.m-2.s-1) and the variety Estica had the highest value (9.40 mmol CO2.m-2.s-1). The average root and shoot weight for Mironovska 808 was the highest (0.92 g and 5.73 g), while for the variety Estica it was the lowest (0.87 g and 5.58 g).
Key words: abiotic stresses; wheat; Triticum aestivum L.; rate of photosynthesis; dry matter.
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 2, 86, 67-75
MORPHOGENESIS OF MAIZE PRIMARY ROOTS IN RELATION TO SALINITY AND METHYURE EFFECT
Ninel A. BELYAVSKAYA, Olga I. ZHUK1, Irina N. KURILENKO,
Tatiana A. PALLADINA
Institute of Botany
Tereschenkivska St. 2, 01601 Kyiv, Ukraine
1 Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics
Vasylkivska St. 31/17, 03002 Kyiv, Ukraine
Salinity is one of the factors that affects the growth and development as well as decreases crop plant productivity, including maize. The mechanisms by which maize is able to adapt to salinity are still understood incompletely. Therefore, the aim of the present study was the investigation of the morphogenesis at different levels of the plant organization in response to salinity and the treatment with methyure (growth regulator). We examined seedlings Zea mays L. cv. Collectivnyi 225 germinated in distilled water or in 10-7 М methyure (for 24 h) and then grown in the Hoagland medium. The 7-day seedlings were exposed to 100 mM NaCl or were grown in the fresh medium for 1 day. Roots and especially shoots of seedlings treated with salt were found to be smaller than those of the salt-free control seedlings, whereas methyure stimulated shoot and root growth, with reductions in length of shoots and the same as in control roots after NaCl treatment. If the salt treatment reduced mitotic index, methyure partly prevented the effect. The number of cell files in roots following NaCl application lowered while the regulator using, on the contrary, increased their number and weakened negative effect of the salt. Salinity retarded the formation of the central cylinder in roots whereas the methyure pre-treatment staved off the effect. Root meristem cell size weakly changed following NaCl application while cell parameters in the elongation zone were smaller than those in controls; in meristem, methyure kept these indices unchanged although in elongation zone, in the presence of NaCl it stimulated their growth and only partial recovery of this process occurred due to methyure alone. At the cellular level, the changes in structure, number and sizes of some organelles were revealed following salt application and antistress effect of the growth regulator.
Key words: anatomy, methyure, morphogenesis, salinity, primary root, ultrastructure, Zea mays.
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 2, 86, 76-85
ENERGY METABOLISM IN FIBRE FLAX ONTOGENESIS AT HETEROSIS
Vladimir TITOK, Svetlana YURENKOVA, Ljubov KHOTYLEVA
Institute of Genetics and Cytology, National Academy of Sciences
27, Akademicheskaya St., Minsk, 220072, Republic of Belarus
The identification of physiological and biochemical factors, playing a key role in productivity, and their application in breeding material estimation when developing competitive fibre flax cultivars are an urgent trend of investigations. Fibre flax cultivars and their F1 hybrids were used in the present study. Content of adenine (AMP, ADP, ATP) and nicotinamide nucleotides (NAD+, NADP+, NADH, NADPH) were measured by HPLC. The biochemical parameters under investigation allowed estimation of bioenergy equivalents variability pattern and individual links functioning in metabolism of initial cultivars and hybrids F1 in ontogenesis. A significant excess of energy indices in heterosis hybrids over parents indicates an increased activity of energy-producing processes. Low values of adenylate energy charge at the fir-tree stage in the parent forms probably result from the so-called limiting factors restricting interaction and activity of energy metabolism individual links. Heterosis seems to manifest itself in the hybrids F1 produced by cultivars crossing carrying weak points in various links of bioenergetic metabolism.
Key words: growth, bioenergetic processes, adenylate energy charge, ontogenesis, heterosis, Linum usitatissimum L.
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 2, 86, 86-91
INFLUENCE OF CYCLOHEXIMIDE TREATMENT (in vivo) ON IAA-DEPENDENT REACTIONS IN WHEAT COLEOPTILE CELL NUCLEI
Jūratė DARGINAVIČIENĖ, Gemir MAKSIMOV1, Jonas ŽEMĖNAS2
1Institute of Botany
Žaliųjų ežerų 49, LT-08406, Vilnius, Lithuania
2Vilnius Pedagogical University
Studentų 39, LT-08106, Vilnius, Lithuania
Wheat coleoptile cells nuclei protein synthesis was inhibited with cycloheximide (CH) in vivo, and the effect of plasmalemmal IAA-protein complexes on RNA-polymerase II activity was compared in cells growing at a different rate. The results have shown that when an RNA synthesis system of isolated nuclei is composed of the nuclei in which protein synthesis is inhibited by CH (3ּ10-6 M, in vivo), RNA-polymerase II activity in this model system increases. The plasmalemmal IAA-protein complexes characterized by transcription activating effects also enhance RNA-polymerase II (~45 % exceeding the CH-untreated variants), and this effect is related to the IAA-controlled cell growth rate. These results are in agreement with the hypothesized model of IAA action /Reed, 2001/, according to which the expression of the early IAA-induced genes is negatively regulated by the interaction between the phytohormone response factors and the short-lived Aux/IAA proteins present in the nuclei of flowering plant cells.
Key words: IAA-protein complexes, cycloheximide, plasmalemma, wheat coleoptile, growth rate.
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 2, 86, 92-96
ANTIOXIDANT - INDUCED CHANGES IN LEAF GROWTH RATE OF PLANTS
Natalia BUDAGOVSKAYA1, Valery GULIAEV2
1Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Botanicheskaya 35, Moscow 127276, Russia
2All-Russian Institute of Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Plants,
Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Effect of antioxidant ambiol added to the root zone of wheat, oat and rice plants grown under mineral nutrition deficiency on growth rate of leaves has been studied. The leaf growth rate was measured by means of a laser interference auxanometer. Two stages of response reaction of leaves on the effect of antioxidant were observed: rapid (immediately after addition of ambiol) and slow (within 2-3 h after addition of ambiol). Ambiol induced both increase and decrease in leaf growth rate. Direction of the response reaction of leaves on the effect of ambiol (increase or decrease) depended on the initial leaf growth rate and concentration of ambiol. Ambiol stimulated more the growth of leaves with initially low growth rate than of those with higher growth rate. Gradual increase in ambiol concentration at the root zone resulted in the change of direction of response reaction in leaf growth rate from increase to decrease.
Key words: antioxidant, growth, leaf, oat, rice, root, wheat.
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 2, 86, 97-102
SPECIFIC FEATURES OF AUTUMNAL CO2-EXCHANGE IN THE OVERWINTERING PLANTS
Stanislav V. KLIMOV
Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Botanicheskaya ul.35, Moscow, 127276 Russia
During three-seasons investigation of winter wheat plants cv. Mironovskaya (Triticum aestivum L.) revealed that the autumnal cold hardening changed parameters of light and temperature dependence of photosynthesis. It has been found that the ratio of light-saturated photosynthesis rate to that of dark respiration increased about 1.5-2.0-fold after hardening while the initial difference in the value of this parameter was kept. These results suggest that the overwintering plants elaborated the capacity to shift the gas exchange towards domination of the photosynthetic component over the respiratory one during cooling in the autumn period. We suppose that in this process the plants accumulate the food reserves like poikilothermic animals.
Key words: overwintering of plants, accumulation of reserve substances, CO2-exchange, photosynthesis, respiration, Triticum aestivum L.